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Research Articles and Papers on:

Vitamin B12 / Pernicious Anaemia


Am J Med Sci. 2006 Sep;332(3):119-22.

Prevalence and evaluation of B12 deficiency in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.

Ness-Abramof R, Nabriski DA, Braverman LE, Shilo L, Weiss E, Reshef T, Shapiro MS, Shenkman L.
Endocrine Unit, Sapir Medical Center, Tchernikovsky 53, Kfar Saba, Israel 44261. Rosane-Abramof.Ness@clalit.org.il

Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) have a higher prevalence of pernicious anemia compared with the general population. Clinical signs of B12 deficiency may be subtle and missed, particularly in patients with known autoimmune disease. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with AITD and whether their evaluation may be simplified by measuring fasting gastrin levels.

Serum B12 levels was measured in 115 patients with AITD (7 men and 108 women), with a mean age of 47 +/- 15 years. In patients with low serum B12 levels (< or =133 pmol/L), fasting serum gastrin and parietal cell antibodies (PCA) were measured.

Thirty-two patients (28%) with AITD had low B12 levels. Fasting serum gastrin was measured in 26 and was higher than normal in 8 patients. PCA were also measured in 27 patients with B12 deficiency and were positive in 8 patients. Five patients with high gastrin levels underwent gastroscopy with biopsy, and atrophic gastritis was diagnosed in all. The prevalence of pernicious anemia as assessed by high serum gastrin levels in patients with low B12 was 31%.

Patients with AITD have a high prevalence of B12 deficiency and particularly of pernicious anemia. The evaluation of B12 deficiency can be simplified by measuring fasting serum gastrin and, if elevated, referring the patient for gastroscopy.
PMID: 16969140




Encephale. 2003 Nov-Dec;29(6):560-5.

[Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report].

Psychiatric manifestations are frequently associated with pernicious anemia including depression, mania, psychosis, dementia. We report a case of a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency, who has presented severe depression with delusion and Capgras' syndrome, delusion with lability of mood and hypomania successively, during a period of two Months.

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Indian J Psychol Med. 2011 Jul-Dec; 33(2): 203–204.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder as Early Manifestation of B12 Deficiency

B12 acts as a cofactor in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thus B12 deficiency affects mood, emotions and sleeping and can lead to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric manifestations of B12 deficiency are varied. They seldom precede anemia. We want to present a case of B12 deficiency which was presented with obsessive compulsive disorder.

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